Az elkerülés mint folyamat - az elkerülés kérdőív bemérése 15 és 18 évesek körében

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Kasik László
Guti Kornél
Tóth Edit
Fejes József Balázs


We aimed to develop an Avoidance questionnaire for adolescents and test it among 15-and 18-year-olds (N=490). The questionnaire was designed to measure as many avoidance styles as possible, as well as to explore the link between these styles and some of the elements of the problem-solving process. Based on the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we concluded that our final Avoidance questionnaire, which consists of 11 factors and 42 statements, is suitable for measuring the following factors of avoidance in both the 15-and 18-year-old age groups: negative emotions, thoughts and physical symptoms in relation to avoidance; problem prevention; negative self-efficacy; insolubility; negligence; annulation; waiting for problems to resolve themselves; distraction; procrastination; gathering strength; rumination; asking for help; and problem-solving under external pressure. Therefore, we assume the questionnaire is suitable for use from ages 15 to 18. The convergent and discriminatory validity of the questionnaire was tested using the SPSI–R (D’Zurilla et al., 2002). The majority of the process elements and avoidance styles measured positively correlate with negative problem orientation, impulsivity and avoidance factors on the SPSI. Procrastination, gathering strength and rumination are significantly related to positive problem orientation, as are asking for help and problem-solving under external pressure, which have a negative relationship with the avoidance factor. Correlation values contributed to a more precise interpretation of the results from the factor analysis. The results indicate that, besides determining whether they are positively ornegatively oriented, avoidance styles should also be seen as part of a process (started, not started, pending, interrupted). The data collected with the questionnaire provide invaluable information for a more complex exploration of the nature of avoidance. Moreover, they can help educators to develop problem-solving programmes, more specifically, programmes that focus on the issue of avoidance.


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Kasik, L., Guti, K., Tóth, E., & Fejes, J. B. (2016). Az elkerülés mint folyamat - az elkerülés kérdőív bemérése 15 és 18 évesek körében. Magyar Pedagógia, 116(2), 219–253.

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