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The current study discusses learning strategies with a focus on maladaptive learning strategies, such as self-handicapping, procrastination, perfectionism and defensive pessimism. The most prominent approaches in the literature are presented, including relevant definitions and correlations. Then, possible interventions and practical implications are considered. It seems apparent that despite the various outcomes of maladaptive strategy use, there are similar tendencies among the underlying causes. Students who employ these strategies often have deficits in self-regulated learning, low or fluctuating self-esteem, and a problematic relationship with situations in which their competences are tested. The effects of maladaptive strategies are most often improved by changing the goals of the classroom or by employing cognitive behaviour therapy aimed at modifying students’ strategy use. By synthesizing these interventions, we aim to provide guidelines that can help teachers recognize maladaptive strategy use and develop an appropriate method to assist students in need.